Lampu Sorot

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Sorot Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu Indsutri LVD

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Indutri LVD Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu PJU LED

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu PJU LED Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Supplier Lampu Sorot Stark LED

Supplier Lampu Sorot Stark LED Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

Supplier Lampu Sorot Stark LED

Lampu Jalan

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Jalan Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu Philips

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Philips Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu Sorot Reklame

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Sorot Reklame Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu Taman

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Taman Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu Sorot Gedung

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Sorot Gedung Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Lampu Murah

Jual Lampu Sorot - Lampu Murah Kami menyediakan dan menjual beraneka macam lampu seperti : Lampu Sorot, Lampu Jalan PJU, Lampu Industri, Lampu LED, Lampu LVD, Lampu Sorot Pertambangan, Lampu Sorot Reklame, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Parkir, Lampu Sorot Stadion, Lampu Sorot Lapangan Futsal, Lampu Jalan LED, Lampu Jalan LVD, Lampu Industri LED, Lampu Industri LVD, Highbay, Lampu Taman, Lampu Kolam, Lampu Hias, Lampu Sorot Gedung, Lampu Halogen, Lampu Rotary, Strobo Blitz, dan segala jenis lampu lainnya.

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Kabut asap kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Riau telah mengakibatkan jarak pandang di sejumlah wilayah di Sumatera Barat (Sumbar) hanya berkisar 100 hingga 900 meter. Hal itu telah disampaikan oleh Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) Ketaping Kabupaten Padangpariaman, Sumatera Barat.

Kabut asap kebakaran hutan dan lahan di Riau telah mengakibatkan jarak pandang di sejumlah wilayah di Sumatera Barat (Sumbar) hanya berkisar 100 hingga 900 meter. Hal itu telah disampaikan oleh Badan Meteorologi Klimatologi dan Geofisika (BMKG) Ketaping Kabupaten Padangpariaman, Sumatera Barat.

"Sejak pagi terpantau jarak pandang terpendek berada di Kota Payakumbuh 100 meter, Padang Panjang 700 meter, Sicincin 500 meter, dan Kota Padang sekitar 600 hingga 900 meter," kata Analis Forecasther BMKG Padangpariaman, Siska Anggraini di Padang, Rabu (12/3).

Ia juga memastikan saat ini di seluruh wilayah Sumbar telah diselimuti oleh kabut asap dengan ketebalan bervariasi. Namun, berdasarkan pantauan wilayah yang paling parah diselimuti kabut asap adalah Kota Payakumbuh dan Kabupaten Lima Puluh Kota, karena posisinya yang berbatasan langsung dengan Riau.

"Diperkirakan kabut asap yang telah menyelimuti wilayah Sumbar tersebut akan terus terjadi hingga akhir pekan karena perkiraan cuaca daerah ini dalam tiga hari ke depan cerah berawan," katanya.

Kondisi ini, katanya, telah diperparah oleh belum adanya tanda-tanda akan padam sumber titik api di Riau serta belum ada potensi hujan yang menyebabkan kabut asap terus bertambah.

Sementara itu, Manajer Operasional PT Angkasa Pura II Bandara Internasional Minangkabau (BIM) di Padangpariaman, Joko Sudarmanto juga mengatakan kabut asap yang terjadi belum menggangu aktivitas penerbangan.

"Pada pagi ini cuaca juga sempat memburuk dengan jarak pandang hanya 800 meter, namun saat ini sudah agak membaik sehingga aktivitas penerbangan dapat berjalan dengan lancar tanpa ada hambatan," katanya.

Ia juga menyebutkan hingga saat ini sudah empat penerbangan yang datang dan berangkat. Kabut asap yang menyelimuti sejumlah wilayah Sumbar terpantau pekat sejak pagi hari di mana terlihat bayangan putih dalam jarak pandang 500 meter.

Di jalan yang ada di Kota Padang sejak pagi terlihat sebagian besar pengendara sepeda motor menggunakan masker dan menghidupkan lampu kendaraan akibat terbatasnya jarak pandang.

Kalibrasi merupakan proses verifikasi bahwa suatu alat ukur yang akurat sesuai dengan jenis desain. Kalibrasi ini biasanya dilak

Kalibrasi merupakan proses verifikasi bahwa suatu alat ukur yang akurat sesuai dengan jenis desain. Kalibrasi ini biasanya dilakukan dengan membandingkan standar yang terkait dengan standar nasional dan internasional dan materi referensi bersertifikat.

Kalibrasi diperuntukan pada :

 

    Alat/instrument baru
    Suatu alat/instrument disetiap waktu tertentu
    Suatu alat/instrument setiap waktu penggunaan tertentu (jam operasi)
    Ketika suatu alat/instrument mengalami hantaman atau getaran yang berpotensi dapat merubah kalibrasi
    Ketika hasil pengamatan dipertanyakan

 

Kalibrasi, umumnya, adalah proses untuk menyesuaikan output atau indikasi dari suatu alat/instrument pengukuran agar sesuai dengan besaran/satuan dari standar yang digunakan dalam akurasi/range tertentu. Contohnya, micrometer dapat dikalibrasi sehingga kesalahan pembacaan atau koreksi dapat ditentukan dan disesuaikan (melalui konstanta kalibrasi), sehingga micrometer tersebut menunjukan ukuran yang sebenarnya dalam milimeter pada titik-titik tertentu di skala.

 

Di beberapa negara, termasuk Indonesia, terdapat direktorat metrologi yang memiliki standar pengukuran (dalam SI dan satuan-satuan turunannya) yang akan digunakan sebagai acuan bagi alat/instrument yang dikalibrasi. Direktorat metrologi juga mendukung infrastuktur metrologi di suatu negara (dan, seringkali, negara lain) dengan membangun rantai pengukuran dari standar tingkat tinggi/internasional dengan alat/instrument yang digunakan.

 

Hasil kalibrasi harus disertai pernyataan “traceable uncertainty” atau “ketidakpastian” untuk menentukan tingkat kepercayaan yang di evaluasi dengan seksama dengan analisis ketidakpastian.
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Bekasi, Saco-Indonesia.com - Politikus Indar Parawansa (53), suami dari mantan calon gubernur Jawa Timur Khofifah Indar Parawansa , ditemukan meninggal dunia di sebuah kamar hotel di Kota Palu, Rabu (16/1) sekitar pukul 21.00 WITA.

Bekasi, Saco-Indonesia.com - Politikus Indar Parawansa (53), suami dari mantan calon gubernur Jawa Timur Khofifah Indar Parawansa , ditemukan meninggal dunia di sebuah kamar hotel di Kota Palu, Rabu (16/1) sekitar pukul 21.00 WITA. Hal itu dibenarkan Kepala Polres Palu AKBP Trisno Rahmadi yang dihubungi Kamis (16/1) pagi, seperti dilansir Antara.

Hingga kini, polisi masih menyelidiki kematiannya. Polisi juga tidak menemukan tanda-tanda kekerasan di tubuh Almarhum.

Sementara itu, Almarhum sudah dibawa ke rumah sakit untuk diperiksa lebih lanjut. Berdasarkan informasi yang dihimpun, Indar Parawansa sudah menginap di hotel tersebut sejak Selasa (14/1).

Ketika petugas hotel hendak menanyakan urusan administrasi pada Rabu malam, dari kamar korban tidak terdapat respon.

Setelah kamar dibuka, ternyata korban sudah terbujur kaku. Melihat hal itu, petugas hotel tersebut segera menghubungi polisi.

Saat petugas datang ke hotel dan melakukan pemeriksaan, ditemukan identitas KTP dari kamar korban. Korban bernama Indar Parawansa dengan alamat Jalan Pengadegan Timur, C/11, Kecamatan Pancoran, Jakarta Selatan.

Setelah ditelusuri lebih jauh, ternyata Indar Parawansa adalah suami Khofifah. Khofifah adalah Menteri Negara Pemberdayaan Perempuan dan Perlindungan Anak pada era Presiden

Sumber : Kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Jakarta, Saco-Indonesia.com — Buktikn kalau memang ada mantan Ketua Umum Partai Demokrat, Anas Urbaningrum, memiliki bukti keterlibatan Edhie Baskoro Yudhoyono (Ibas) dalam kasus Hambalang, maka Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi menantangnya menyerahkan bukti itu.

Jakarta, Saco-Indonesia.com — Buktikn kalau memang ada mantan Ketua Umum Partai Demokrat, Anas Urbaningrum, memiliki bukti keterlibatan Edhie Baskoro Yudhoyono (Ibas) dalam kasus Hambalang, maka Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi menantangnya menyerahkan bukti itu.

"Jangan kemudian hanya menjanjikan, tapi hanya terus berjanji, karena menyerahkan itu bukan sesuatu yang sulit kalau barangnya ada," kata Wakil Ketua Komisi Pemberantasan Korupsi Bambang Widjojanto di Gedung KPK, Kuningan, Jakarta, Rabu (5/2/2014) malam.

Bambang mengatakan, KPK pasti akan menindaklanjuti pernyataan Anas sepanjang didukung bukti yang valid. "Tapi kalau barangnya di-ada-ada-kan, itu lain lagi. Saya berprasangka baik saja. Kalau memang ada, segera serahkan, jangan sampai itu berpolemik," imbuh Bambang.

Pengacara Anas, Adnan Buyung Nasution, mengatakan kliennya itu sudah menyampaikan kepada penyidik KPK mengenai peran Ibas dalam Kongres Partai Demokrat pada 2010. Adnan menyampaikan hal itu di sela-sela waktu pemeriksaan Anas, Rabu.

Dalam kongres tersebut, Ibas bertindak sebagai steering committee atau panitia pengarah. Pengacara lain Anas, Firman Wijaya, juga mengatakan bahwa Anas memiliki bukti foto yang menunjukkan keterlibatan pihak lain.

Saat dikonfirmasi apakah benar Anas menyampaikan peran Ibas dalam kongres partai tersebut kepada penyidik KPK, Bambang mengatakan, dia akan mengeceknya dulu kepada tim penyidik. Selaku pimpinan KPK, Bambang tidak terlibat langsung dalam proses pemeriksaan saksi atau tersangka.

Sepengetahuan Bambang, pada pemeriksaan Anas pekan lalu, pertanyaan penyidik KPK yang diajukan kepada Anas belum masuk materi kasus yang akan menjadi materi dakwaan. "Yang saya tahu minggu lalu itu proses pemeriksaannya baru menyangkut hal-hal yang mendasar sekali, belum masuk di materi. Hari ini saya dengar dari teman-teman sudah masuk," kata dia.

Bambang juga mengatakan, KPK tidak akan langsung memeriksa Ibas sebagai saksi jika keterangan Anas hanya sebatas peran Ibas sebagai steering committee (SC). Menurut Bambang, seseorang akan diperiksa sebagai saksi jika orang itu disebutkan memiliki peran yang dapat membuktikan keterlibatan tersangka dalam kasus yang disidik KPK.

"Cuma kalau keterangannya bahwa Ibas adalah SC, itu kan semua orang juga sudah tahu, apa lagi yang dipersoalkan soal itu?" tanya Bambang.

KPK menetapkan Anas sebagai tersangka atas dugaan menerima pemberian hadiah atau janji terkait proyek Hambalang dan proyek lainnya. Diduga, Anas menerima uang dari kontraktor proyek Hambalang untuk membiayai pemenangannya dalam Kongres Partai Demokrat 2010.

Sumber :Kompas.com

Editor : Maulana Lee

Emotional Spiritual Quotient (ESQ) adalah kombinasi dari EQ dan SQ, merger antara kecerdasan emosional dan spiritual control. Ma

Emotional Spiritual Quotient (ESQ) adalah kombinasi dari EQ dan SQ, merger antara kecerdasan emosional dan spiritual control. Manfaat yang dapat dicapai adalah keseimbangan antara hubungan horizontal (manusia ke manusia) dan Vertikal (manusia dan Tuhan) .... Selanjutnya

saco-indonesia.com, Menyusul serangan bom bunuh diri di depan Markas Polres Poso, Sulawesi Tengah, Kepolisian Daerah Sulawesi dan Sulawesi Barat (Polda Sulselbar) memperketat pengamanan di perbatasan kota dengan melibatkan anggota TNI.

MAKASSAR, Saco-Indonesia.com — Menyusul serangan bom bunuh diri di depan Markas Polres Poso, Sulawesi Tengah, Kepolisian Daerah Sulawesi dan Sulawesi Barat (Polda Sulselbar) memperketat pengamanan di perbatasan kota dengan melibatkan anggota TNI.

Kepala Bidang Hubungan Masyarakat Polda Sulselbar Komisaris Besar Endi Sutendi yang dihubungi Senin (03/06/2013) mengatakan, pascabom tersebut, polisi langsung memperketat pengamanan di daerah perbatasan. Di lokasi itu, aparat melakukan razia senjata api, bahan peledak dan senjata tajam.

"Jajaran polres di Sulawesi Barat langsung berkoordinasi di TNI, yakni kodim setempat, untuk memperketat pengamanan di daerah perbatasan. Jelas kewaspadaan harus ditingkatkan. Jangan sampai kejadian serupa terjadi di daerah kita yang dekat dengan Poso," kata Endi.

Selain itu, lanjut Endi, untuk mengantisipasi kejadian serupa di Sulselbar, seluruh jajaran juga melakukan razia di wilayah masih-masing. Tentunya upaya itu bisa mencegah aksi teror. "Tindakan preventif, kita melakukan pendekatan dan penyelidikan adanya teroris. Sedangkan tindakan preventif, kita menggelar razia-razia di jalanan," jelasnya.

Bom bunuh diri terjadi di antara pos jaga Mapolres Poso dan masjid, Senin (3/6/2013) pukul 08.03 Wita. Pelaku awalnya memasuki halaman Mapolres Poso menggunakan sepeda motor seorang diri. Tak lama setelah itu, bom meledak.

 
Editor :Liwon Maulana
Sumber:Kompas.com

saco-indonesia.com, Di iklim tropis seperti Indonesia, pendingin udara atau Air Conditioner (AC) dirasa sangat penting bagi seba

saco-indonesia.com, Di iklim tropis seperti Indonesia, pendingin udara atau Air Conditioner (AC) dirasa sangat penting bagi sebagian besar orang. Bahkan AC juga hampir digunakan untuk setiap saat, baik di rumah dan di kantor.

Tetapi tahukan Anda bahwa ternyata AC juga mempunyai dampak yang negatif terhadap kesehatan tubuh. Seperti yang dikutip dari globaltvedmonton, berikut lima dampak negatif AC terhadap kesehatan tubuh.

1. Terkena Penyakit & Kelelahan Rutin
Penelitian telah menunjukkan bahwa orang yang selalu bekerja dalam ruangan ber-AC telah memiliki kemungkinan mengalami sakit kepala kronis dan rasa lelah yang terus menerus terjadi. Mereka yang bekerja di dalam gedung terus menerus terkena udara dingin sehingga mungkin alami iritasi membran mukosa dan kesulitan bernapas. Hal itu telah membuat Anda lebih rentan terhadap pilek, flu dan penyakit lainnya.

2. Kulit Kering
Berjam-jam telah menghabiskan waktu di lingkungan ber-AC juga dapat menyebabkan kulit Anda kehilangan kelembaban. Apalagi jika Anda tidak membantu kelembaban kulit dengan mengaplikasikan lotion. Beberapa kasus kulit kering yang parah bisa mengakibatkan eksim atau penyakit kulit lainnya.

3. Membuat Kondisi Penyakit Semakin Parah
Pendingin udara dengan sistem sentral diketahui juga dapat membuat penyakit yang sudah diderita menjadi lebih parah. AC membuat proses 'merasakan' sakit menjadi lebih sulit dan hal ini sangat berbahaya bagi mereka yang mengalami sakit. Selain itu, AC juga dipercaya dapat meningkatkan gejala tekanan darah rendah, rematik dan neuritis.

4. Ketidakmampuan Tubuh Menghadapi Panas
Tubuh mereka yang telah menghabiskan banyak waktu di lingkungan ber-AC cenderung sulit mentolerir suhu musim panas. Biasanya ini diakibatkan stres tubuh karena berpindah dari lingkungan dingin ke area outdoor yang panas. Ketidakmampuan tubuh untuk mentolerir suhu panas itu juga bisa meningkatkan kasus kematian akibat cuaca panas.

5. Masalah Pernapasan
Walau AC mobil dapat membuat Anda tetap merasa sejuk saat harus bermacet-macetan di siang hari, namun AC juga bisa mengedarkan kuman serta mikro-organisme yang dapat menyebabkan masalah pernapasan. Para peneliti Louisiana State Medical Center menemukan delapan jenis kuman yang hidup pada 22 dari 25 mobil yang telah di uji coba. AC juga diketahui bisa dapat menyebarkan penyakit pernapasan seperti Legionnaire, yang bisa sebabkan batuk, demam hingga pneumonia (penyakit paru-paru).


Editor : Dian Sukmawati

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Mr. Paczynski was one of the concentration camp’s longest surviving inmates and served as the personal barber to its Nazi commandant Rudolf Höss.

Mr. Tepper was not a musical child and had no formal training, but he grew up to write both lyrics and tunes, trading off duties with the other member of the team, Roy C. Bennett.

ate in February, Dr. Ben Carson, the celebrated pediatric neurosurgeon turned political insurrectionist, was trying to check off another box on his presidential-campaign to-do list: hiring a press secretary. The lead prospect, a public-relations specialist named Deana Bass, had come to meet him at the dimly lit Capitol Hill office of Carson’s confidant and business manager, Armstrong Williams. Carson sat back and scrutinized her from behind a small granite table, as life-size cardboard cutouts of more conventional politicians — President Obama, with a tight smile, and Senator John McCain, glowering — loomed behind each of his shoulders. (The mock $3 bill someone had left on a table in Williams’s waiting room undercut any notion that this was a bipartisan zone; it featured Obama wearing a turban.)

Bass seemed momentarily speechless, and not just because no one had warned her that a New York Times reporter would be sitting in on her job interview. Though she knew Williams — a jack-of-all-trades entrepreneur who owns several television stations and a public-affairs business and who hosts a daily talk-radio show — through Washington’s small circle of black conservatives, the two hadn’t spoken in years until he called her two days earlier. He had been struggling to come up with the perfect national spokesperson, he told her. Then, at the gym, her name popped into his head; Williams was fairly certain she was the one. Sitting across from a likely candidate for president, Bass was adjusting to the idea that her life might be about to take a sudden chaotic turn.

“It’s like getting the most random call on a Monday that you simply do not see coming,” she said. “Oftentimes, that is how the Lord works.”

Continue reading the main story

His life in brain surgery
has prepared him for the
presidency, he maintains,
better than lives in
politics have for his rivals.

Carson concurred: “It’s always how he works in my life.” Carson is soft-spoken and often talks with his eyes half closed, frequently punctuating his sentences with a small laugh, even if the humor of his statement is not readily apparent. Bass told Carson that she had been a Republican staff member on Capitol Hill then worked for the Republican National Committee. In 2007 she started a Christian public-relations firm with her sister. She enjoyed working on the Hill, she said, but the pay wasn’t as high as the hours were long. “We figured that we worked like slaves for other people, and we wanted to work for ourselves.”

Carson stopped her. “You know you can’t mention that word, right?” Carson waited a beat, then laughed, and Williams and Bass joined in. He was getting to the point; he needed a professional who could help him check his penchant for creating uncontrolled controversy just by talking.

The Ben Carson movement began in 2013, when Carson, a neurosurgeon, whose operating-room prowess and up-from-poverty back story had made him the subject of a television movie and a regular on the inspirational-speaking circuit, was invited to address the annual National Prayer Breakfast in Washington. With Barack Obama sitting just two seats away, Carson warned that “moral decay” and “fiscal irresponsibility” could destroy America just as it did ancient Rome. He proposed a substitute for Obamacare — Health Savings Accounts, which, he said, would end any talk of “death panels” — and a flat-tax based on the concept of tithing. His address, combined with the president’s stony reaction, was a smash with Republican activists. Speaking and interview requests flooded in. Carson, then 61, announced his planned retirement a few weeks later, freeing his calendar to accept just about all of them. In the months that followed, his rhetoric became increasingly strident. The claim that drew the most attention, perhaps, was that Obamacare was “the worst thing that has happened in this nation since slavery.”

Bass’s own use of the word prompted Carson to ask her what she thought about that incident. She considered for a moment.

“If you want to reach people and have them even understand what you’re saying, there is a way to do it, without that hyperbole, that might be. . . . ” She paused. “I just think it’s important not to shut people off before they —”

Carson jumped in. “That doesn’t allow them to hear what you’re saying?”

Bass nodded.

Likening Obamacare to slavery — and slavery was incomparably worse, Carson said — had its political advantages for a candidacy like his. It was the kind of statement that stoked the angriest of the Republican voters: conservative stalwarts who can’t hear enough bad things about Obama. This, in turn, led to more talk-radio and Fox News appearances, more book sales, more donations to the super PAC started in his name, more support in the polls. (The day before the meeting, one poll of Republican voters showed Carson statistically tied for first place with Jeb Bush and Scott Walker.)

Rhetorical excess was good for business, but Carson now wants to be seen as more than a novelty candidate. He has come to learn that such extreme analogies, while true to his views, aren’t especially presidential. They alienate more moderate voters and, perhaps even more damaging, reinforce the impression that he is not “serious” — that he is another Herman Cain, the black former Godfather’s Pizza chief executive who rose to the top of the early presidential polls in 2011 but then bowed out before the Iowa caucuses, largely because of leaked allegations of sexual misconduct, which he denied but from which he never recovered. Cain lingers as a cautionary tale for the party as much as for a right-leaning candidate like Carson. The fact that Cain, with his folksy sayings (“shucky ducky”) and misnomers (“Ubeki-beki-beki-beki-stan-stan”), reached the top of the national polls — much less that he was eventually followed there by the likes of Michele Bachmann, Newt Gingrich and Rick Santorum, who all topped one or another poll in the 2012 primary season — wound up being a considerable embarrassment for the eventual nominee, Mitt Romney, and for the longtime party regulars who were trying to fast-track his way to the nomination.

Carson liked Bass and, without directly saying so, made it clear the job was hers for the taking. Carson’s campaign chairman, Terry Giles — a white lawyer whose clients have included the comedian Richard Pryor and the stepson of the model Anna Nicole Smith and who helped reconcile the business interests of the descendants of the Rev. Martin Luther King Jr. — had assembled a mostly white campaign team, including many from the 2012 Gingrich effort, and Carson wanted a person of color to speak for him. Bass said she would have to mull it over, pray about it. Carson nodded approvingly. “Pray about it,” he said. “See what you think.”

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Williams knew the party was intent on protecting the eventual 2016 nominee from the same embarrassment Romney suffered. Already, suspiciously tough articles about Carson were showing up in conservative magazines and on right-wing websites. “They’re protecting these establishment candidates,” Williams said. “This is coming from within the house. This is family.” At the very least, he wanted to make sure that Carson didn’t do their work for them. (Carson would commit another unforced error a week later, when he told CNN that homosexuality was clearly a choice, because a lot of people go in prison straight and “when they come out, they’re gay”; he later apologized.)

“We need somebody to protect him, sometimes, from himself,” he told Bass — laughing, but only half kidding.

A candidacy like Carson’s presents a new kind of problem to the establishment wing of the G.O.P., which, at least since 1980, has selected its presidential nominees with a routine efficiency that Democrats could only envy. The establishment candidate has usually been a current or former governor or senator, blandly Protestant, hailing from the moderate, big-business wing of the party (or at least friendly with it) and almost always a second-, third- or fourth-time national contender — someone who had waited “his turn.” These candidates would tack predictably to the right during the primaries to satisfy the evangelicals, deficit hawks, libertarian leaners and other inconvenient but vital constituents who made up the “base” of the party. In return, the base would, after a brief flirtation with some fantasy candidate like Steve Forbes or Pat Buchanan, “hold their noses” and deliver their votes come November. This bargain was always tenuous, of course, and when some of the furthest-right activists turned against George W. Bush, citing (among other apostasies) his expansion of Medicare’s prescription drug benefit, it began to fall apart. After Barack Obama defeated McCain in 2008, the party’s once dependable base started to reconsider the wisdom of holding their noses at all.

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Republican candidates at a pre-straw-poll debate, held at Iowa State University in 2011. Credit Chip Somodevilla/Getty Images

This insurgent attitude was helped along by changes in the nomination rules. In 2010, the Republican National Committee, hoping to capture the excitement of the coast-to-coast Democratic primary competition between Obama and Hillary Clinton, introduced new voting rules that required many of the early voting states to award some delegates to losing candidates, based on their shares of the vote. The proportional voting rules would encourage struggling candidates to stay in the primaries even after successive losses, as Clinton did, because they might be able to pull together enough delegates to take the nomination in a convention-floor fight or at least use them to bargain for a prime speaking slot or cabinet post.

This shift in incentives did not go unnoticed by potential 2012 candidates, nor did changes in election law that allowed billionaire donors to form super PACs in support of pet candidacies. At the same time, increasingly widespread broadband Internet access allowed candidates to reach supporters directly with video and email appeals and supporters to send money with the tap of a smartphone, making it easier than ever for individual candidates to ignore the wishes of the party.

Into this newly chaotic Republican landscape strode Mitt Romney. There could be no doubt that it was his turn, and yet his journey to the nomination was interrupted by one against-the-odds challenger after another — Cain, Michele Bachmann, Newt Gingrich, Rick Santorum, Ron Paul; always Ron Paul. It was easy to dismiss the 2012 primaries as a meaningless circus, but the onslaught did much more than tarnish the overall Republican brand. It also forced Romney to spend money he could have used against Obama and defend his right flank with embarrassing pandering that shadowed him through the general election. It was while trying to block a surge from Gingrich, for instance, that Romney told a debate audience that he was for the “self-deportation” of undocumented immigrants.

At the 2012 convention in Tampa, a group of longtime party hands, including Romney’s lawyer, Ben Ginsberg, gathered to discuss how to prevent a repeat of what had become known inside and outside the party as the “clown show.” Their aim was not just to protect the party but also to protect a potential President Romney from a primary challenge in 2016. They forced through new rules that would give future presumptive nominees more control over delegates in the event of a convention fight. They did away with the mandatory proportional delegate awards that encouraged long-shot candidacies. And, in a noticeably targeted effort, they raised the threshold that candidates needed to meet to enter their names into nomination, just as Ron Paul’s supporters were working to reach it. When John A. Boehner gaveled the rules in on a voice vote — a vote that many listeners heard as a tie, if not an outright loss — the hall erupted and a line of Ron Paul supporters walked off the floor in protest, along with many Tea Party members.

At a party meeting last winter, Reince Priebus, who as party chairman is charged with maintaining the support of all his constituencies, did restore some proportional primary and caucus voting, but only in states that held voting within a shortened two-week window. And he also condensed the nominating schedule to four and a half months from six months, and, for the first time required candidates to participate in a shortened debate schedule, determined by the party, not by the whims of the networks. (The panel that recommended those changes included names closely identified with the establishment — the former Bush White House spokesman Ari Fleischer, the Mississippi committeeman Haley Barbour and, notably, Jeb Bush’s closest adviser, Sally Bradshaw.)

Grass-roots activists have complained that the condensed schedule robs nonestablishment candidates — “movement candidates” like Carson — of the extra time they need to build momentum, money and organizations. But Priebus, who says the nomination could be close to settled by April, said it helped all the party’s constituencies when the nominee was decided quickly. “We don’t need a six-month slice-and-dice festival,” Priebus said when we spoke in mid-March. “While I can’t always control everyone’s mouth, I can control how long we can kill each other.”

All the rules changes were built to sidestep the problems of 2012. But the 2016 field is shaping up to be vastly different and far larger. A new Republican hints that he or she is considering a run seemingly every week. There are moderates like Gov. John Kasich of Ohio and former Gov. George Pataki of New York; no-compromise conservatives like Senator Ted Cruz of Texas and former Senator Rick Santorum of Pennsylvania; business-wingers like the former Hewlett-Packard chief executive Carly Fiorina; one-of-a-kinds like Donald Trump — some 20 in all, a dozen or so who seem fairly serious about it. That opens the possibility of multiple candidates vying for all the major Republican constituencies, some of them possibly goaded along by super-PAC-funding billionaires, all of them trading wins and collecting delegates well into spring.

Giles says his candidate can capitalize on all that chaos. Rivals may laugh, but Giles argues that if Carson can make a respectable showing in Iowa, then win in South Carolina — or at least come in second should a home-state senator, Lindsey Graham, run — and come in second behind Bush or Senator Marco Rubio in their home state of Florida, he could be positioned to make a real run. But that would depend on avoiding pitfalls like Carson’s ill-considered comments on homosexuality. Rather than capitalizing on the chaos, Carson may only contribute to it.

Ben Carson is, in many ways, the ideal Republican presidential candidate. With a not-too-selective reading of his life story, conservative voters can — and do — see in him an inspiring, up-from-nowhere African-American who shares their beliefs, a right-wing answer to Barack Obama. Before he was born, his parents moved to Detroit from rural Tennessee as part of the second great migration. His father, Robert Solomon Carson, worked at a Cadillac factory. His mother, Sonya — who herself had grown up as one of 24 children and left school at third grade — cleaned houses. When Carson was 8, Sonya discovered that Robert was keeping a second family. She moved, with her two sons, into a rundown group house. It was in a part of town that Carson described to me as crawling with “big rats and roaches and all kinds of horrible things.” Sonya worked several jobs at a time and made up the shortfall with food stamps. (Carson has called for paring back the social safety net but not doing away with it.)

Carson recounts this story in his best-selling 1990 memoir, “Gifted Hands,” which also became the basis for a 2009 movie on TNT, starring Cuba Gooding Jr. as Carson. Raised as a Seventh Day Adventist, Carson realized that he wanted to become a physician during a church sermon about a missionary doctor who, while serving overseas, was almost attacked by thieves but found safety by putting his faith in God. When Carson, then 8, told his mother his new dream, “She said, ‘Absolutely, you could do it, you could do anything,’ ” he told me. Forced by his mother to read two extra books a week, he made it to Yale, then to medical school at the University of Michigan, where he decided to specialize in neurosurgery. He was selected for residency at Johns Hopkins Children’s Center, where he was named director of pediatric neurosurgery at 33, becoming the youngest person, and the first black person, to hold the title. He drew national attention by conducting a succession of operations that had never been performed successfully, most famously planning and managing the first separation of conjoined twins connected through major blood vessels in the brain.

Carson, a two-time Jimmy Carter voter, traces his conservative political awakening to a patient he met during the Reagan years. During a routine obstetrics rotation, he found himself treating an unwed pregnant teenager who had run away from her well-to-do parents. When Carson asked her how she was getting by, she informed him she was on public assistance; this led him to ponder the fact that the government was paying for the result of what he did not view as a “wise decision.” The incident, he says, fed his growing sense that the welfare system too often saps motivation and rewards irresponsible behavior. (When we spoke, he suggested that the government should cut off assistance to would-be unwed mothers, but only after warning them that it would do so within a certain amount of time, say five years. “I bet you’d see a dramatic decrease in unwed motherhood.”)

Carson’s friends at Hopkins say they do not remember him being particularly outspoken about his conservatism. He devoted most of his public engagement to urging poor kids in bad neighborhoods to use “these fancy brains God gave us,” through weekly school visits, student hospital tours and, ultimately, a multimillion-dollar scholarship program. “His issues were always medical care for the poor, education for the poor, equal opportunity — helping the less fortunate and really inspiring them as an example,” a mentor who named him to the chief pediatrics-neurosurgery post at Hopkins, Dr. Donlin Long, told me.

Even when Carson got the chance, in 1997, to speak in front of President Bill Clinton, at the national prayer breakfast, he mostly discussed the lack of role models for black children who were not sports stars or rappers. (There was possibly an oblique reference to Clinton’s sex scandals, when he told the audience that, if they are always honest, they won’t have to worry later about “skeletons in the closet.”)

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Ben Carson at CPAC on Feb. 26 in Oxon Hill, Md. Credit Dolly Faibyshev for The New York Times

In 2011, Carson’s politics took a strident turn, mirroring that of many in his party during the Obama years. “America the Beautiful,” his sixth book, which he wrote with Candy Carson, his wife of 39 years, included a get-tough-on-illegal-immigration message and offered anti-establishment praise for the Tea Party. It suggested that blacks who voted for Obama only because he was black were themselves practicing a form of racism. (Earlier this year he admitted to Buzzfeed that portions of the book were lifted directly from several sources without proper attribution.) His prayer-breakfast performance in 2013, and the extremity of his remarks in the months afterward (Obamacare is the worst thing since slavery; the United States is “very much like Nazi Germany”; allowing same-sex marriage could lead to allowing bestiality), left some of his old friends bewildered. Students at Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine protested his planned convocation address there in 2013, and he eventually backed out. When I asked Carson about the view at Hopkins that he had changed, he said his themes are still the same: “hard work, self-reliance, helping other people.” If he had become more overtly political, he said, it was only because the Obama years had led him to believe that “we’re really moving in a direction that is very, very destructive.”

None of this went unnoticed by campaign professionals. In August 2013, John Philip Sousa IV and Vernon Robinson, each of whom professes to be a virtual stranger to Carson, and who had previously been active in the anti-illegal-immigration movement, started the National Draft Ben Carson for President Committee. Sousa was just coming off a campaign to defend the sheriff of Maricopa County, Arizona, Joe Arpaio, from a recall effort, and he told me that he found Carson’s lack of political experience refreshing. “We have 500 guys and gals with probably a collective 5,000 years experience, and look at the mess we’re in,” he said.

Many others in the party feel the same way. Carson’s PAC finished 2014 with more than $13 million in donations, more than Ready for Hillary. Much of its money has gone toward further fund-raising, but Sousa — the great-grandson of the famous composer — points out that their effort has already built far more than just a war chest, organizing leaders in all 99 of Iowa’s counties. Regardless, Carson credits the fund-raising success of Sousa and Robinson with persuading him to enter the race.

Very early the morning after the job interview, Carson was in a black S.U.V., heading from Washington to the Gaylord National Resort and Convention Center in Oxon Hill, Md., where he was to give the opening candidate speech of the Conservative Political Action Conference. The event, which functions as an early tryout for Republican presidential contenders, tends to skew rightward in its audience, drawing many of the same sorts of people who shouted at Boehner in Tampa. As such, it tends to favor anti-establishment candidates, but the news leading up to this year’s event was that Jeb Bush hoped to make inroads there.

It was still dark when we set out, and I joked with Carson about the hour, telling him he’d better get used to it. He retorted that his career in pediatric brain surgery made him no stranger to early mornings. This is a big theme of Carson’s presidential pitch: that neither the rigors of the campaign nor those of the White House can faze a man who held children’s lives in his hands. His life in brain surgery has prepared him for the presidency, he maintains, better than lives in politics have for his rivals. At the very least, he says, it conditioned him against getting too worked up about any problem that isn’t life threatening. “I mean, it’s grueling, but interestingly enough, I don’t feel the pressure,” he said.

At the convention hall, we were quickly surrounded by admirers. Two women were already waiting to meet him — white, middle-aged volunteers for Carson’s super PAC, who had traveled from South Carolina. One of them, Chris Horne, was holding a dog-eared and taped Bible. A founding member of the Charleston Tea Party who went on to work for Gingrich’s successful South Carolina primary campaign in 2012, Horne lamented over the attacks that Carson was sure to face. “You served us, you served the Lord, just don’t let them steal that from you,” she said. Her friend told him, “You’ve got God behind you!” Such religious evocations trailed Carson constantly while I walked the CPAC floor with him. Evangelicals are impressed not only with his devotion to their politics but also with his career path; as one of them told me, what’s more pro-life than saving babies?

During our ride to the conference, Carson told me his speech was not looking to “feed the beast.” When his appointed time came, he kept his remarks as tame as promised. “Real compassion” meant “using our intellect” to help people “climb out of dependency and realize the American dream,” he said. The national debt is going to “destroy us,” Obamacare was about “redistribution and control,” but Republicans better come forward with their own alternative before they repeal it, he said.

Because his speech was first, and it started several minutes early, the auditorium was slow to fill. Still, the first day saw a crush of people seeking autographs and pictures as he roamed the hall. The Draft Carson committee’s 150 volunteers swarmed the auditorium, collecting emails and handing out “Run Ben Run” stickers. After a quick interview with Sean Hannity, the conservative-radio and Fox News host — his second in two days — Carson was off to Tampa.

In the hours that followed his talk, the hall offered a view in miniature of what the next 12 to 14 months might hold for the party. Chris Christie, sitting across from the tough-minded talk-radio host Laura Ingraham, boasted about his multiple vetoes of Planned Parenthood funding, his refusal to raise income taxes and his belief that “sometimes people need to be told to sit down and shut up.” Cruz, an audience favorite, warning his fellow Republicans against falling for a “squishy moderate,” declared, “Take all 125,000 I.R.S. agents and put ’em on our Southern border!” Gov. Scott Walker of Wisconsin, surging in polls, boasted that if he could face down the 100,000 union supporters who protested his legislation limiting collective bargaining for public employees, he could certainly handle ISIS. The next day, the traditional CPAC favorite Rand Paul spoke, packing the hall with his supporters who chanted “President Paul.” He warned, counter to the overall hawkish tenor of the event, that “we should not succumb to the notion that a government inept at home will somehow become successful abroad.” But he also vowed to end foreign aid to countries whose citizens are seen burning American flags. “Not one penny more to these haters of America.”

Perhaps the defining moment came near the end of the conference, when Jeb Bush spoke. In a neat trick of political gamesmanship — and a show of establishment muscle — his team had bused in an ample cheering section for the dozens of cameras on hand for his appearance. But a small contingent of Tea Party activists and Rand Paul supporters staged a walk out. When Bush began a question-and-answer session, they turned and left the auditorium to chant “U.S.A., U.S.A.” in the hallway, led by a man in colonial garb waving a huge “Don’t Tread on Me” banner. Plenty of other detractors stayed in the hall and peppered Bush’s remarks with booing as he stood by positions unpopular with the conservative grass roots: support for the Common Core standards and an immigration overhaul that provides a “path to legal status” for undocumented immigrants. Bush took it all in good humor, but finally seemed to give up.

“For those who made an ‘oo’ sound — is that what it was? — I’m marking you down as neutral,” he said. “And I want to be your second choice.”

Bush strategists told me they would not repeat Romney’s mistakes. Of course they would love to glide to an early nomination, they said, but they are prepared for a long contest and won’t be wasting any energy bending under pressure from a Paul or a Cruz or a Carson.

No one doubts that the pressure will increase, though. Despite the best wishes of the party’s leaders, GOP primary voters have given little indication that they will narrow the field quickly.

Before I left, I spotted Newt Gingrich, himself a fleeting presidential front-runner during those strange primary days of 2012. I asked him whether he thought all the party maneuvering — all the attempts to change the rules and fast-track the process — would preclude someone from presenting the sort of outside primary challenge he had carried out in the last election.

“No,” he told me, as if it was the most obvious thing in the world. “Look at where Ben Carson is right now.”

Jim Rutenberg is the chief political correspondent for the magazine. His most recent feature was about Megyn Kelly.

Mr. Goldberg was a serial Silicon Valley entrepreneur and venture capitalist who was married to Sheryl Sandberg, the chief operating officer of Facebook.

Dave Goldberg Was Lifelong Women’s Advocate

A former member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, Mr. Smedvig helped found the wide-ranging Empire Brass quintet.

Late in April, after Native American actors walked off in disgust from the set of Adam Sandler’s latest film, a western sendup that its distributor, Netflix, has defended as being equally offensive to all, a glow of pride spread through several Native American communities.

Tantoo Cardinal, a Canadian indigenous actress who played Black Shawl in “Dances With Wolves,” recalled thinking to herself, “It’s come.” Larry Sellers, who starred as Cloud Dancing in the 1990s television show “Dr. Quinn, Medicine Woman,” thought, “It’s about time.” Jesse Wente, who is Ojibwe and directs film programming at the TIFF Bell Lightbox in Toronto, found himself encouraged and surprised. There are so few film roles for indigenous actors, he said, that walking off the set of a major production showed real mettle.

But what didn’t surprise Mr. Wente was the content of the script. According to the actors who walked off the set, the film, titled “The Ridiculous Six,” included a Native American woman who passes out and is revived after white men douse her with alcohol, and another woman squatting to urinate while lighting a peace pipe. “There’s enough history at this point to have set some expectations around these sort of Hollywood depictions,” Mr. Wente said.

The walkout prompted a rhetorical “What do you expect from an Adam Sandler film?,” and a Netflix spokesman said that in the movie, blacks, Mexicans and whites were lampooned as well. But Native American actors and critics said a broader issue was at stake. While mainstream portrayals of native peoples have, Mr. Wente said, become “incrementally better” over the decades, he and others say, they remain far from accurate and reflect a lack of opportunities for Native American performers. What’s more, as Native Americans hunger for representation on screen, critics say the absence of three-dimensional portrayals has very real off-screen consequences.

“Our people are still healing from historical trauma,” said Loren Anthony, one of the actors who walked out. “Our youth are still trying to figure out who they are, where they fit in this society. Kids are killing themselves. They’re not proud of who they are.” They also don’t, he added, see themselves on prime time television or the big screen. Netflix noted while about five people walked off the “The Ridiculous Six” set, 100 or so Native American actors and extras stayed.

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But in interviews, nearly a dozen Native American actors and film industry experts said that Mr. Sandler’s humor perpetuated decades-old negative stereotypes. Mr. Anthony said such depictions helped feed the despondency many Native Americans feel, with deadly results: Native Americans have the highest suicide rate out of all the country’s ethnicities.

The on-screen problem is twofold, Mr. Anthony and others said: There’s a paucity of roles for Native Americans — according to the Screen Actors Guild in 2008 they accounted for 0.3 percent of all on-screen parts (those figures have yet to be updated), compared to about 2 percent of the general population — and Native American actors are often perceived in a narrow way.

In his Peabody Award-winning documentary “Reel Injun,” the Cree filmmaker Neil Diamond explored Hollywood depictions of Native Americans over the years, and found they fell into a few stereotypical categories: the Noble Savage, the Drunk Indian, the Mystic, the Indian Princess, the backward tribal people futilely fighting John Wayne and manifest destiny. While the 1990 film “Dances With Wolves” won praise for depicting Native Americans as fully fleshed out human beings, not all indigenous people embraced it. It was still told, critics said, from the colonialists’ point of view. In an interview, John Trudell, a Santee Sioux writer, actor (“Thunderheart”) and the former chairman of the American Indian Movement, described the film as “a story of two white people.”

“God bless ‘Dances with Wolves,’ ” Michael Horse, who played Deputy Hawk in “Twin Peaks,” said sarcastically. “Even ‘Avatar.’ Someone’s got to come save the tribal people.”

Dan Spilo, a partner at Industry Entertainment who represents Adam Beach, one of today’s most prominent Native American actors, said while typecasting dogs many minorities, it is especially intractable when it comes to Native Americans. Casting directors, he said, rarely cast them as police officers, doctors or lawyers. “There’s the belief that the Native American character should be on reservations or riding a horse,” he said.

“We don’t see ourselves,” Mr. Horse said. “We’re still an antiquated culture to them, and to the rest of the world.”

Ms. Cardinal said she was once turned down for the role of the wife of a child-abusing cop because the filmmakers felt that casting her would somehow be “too political.”

Another sore point is the long run of white actors playing American Indians, among them Burt Lancaster, Rock Hudson, Audrey Hepburn and, more recently, Johnny Depp, whose depiction of Tonto in the 2013 film “Lone Ranger,” was viewed as racist by detractors. There are, of course, exceptions. The former A&E series “Longmire,” which, as it happens, will now be on Netflix, was roundly praised for its depiction of life on a Northern Cheyenne reservation, with Lou Diamond Phillips, who is of Cherokee descent, playing a Northern Cheyenne man.

Others also point to the success of Mr. Beach, who played a Mohawk detective in “Law & Order: Special Victims Unit” and landed a starring role in the forthcoming D C Comics picture “Suicide Squad.” Mr. Beach said he had come across insulting scripts backed by people who don’t see anything wrong with them.

“I’d rather starve than do something that is offensive to my ancestral roots,” Mr. Beach said. “But I think there will always be attempts to drawn on the weakness of native people’s struggles. The savage Indian will always be the savage Indian. The white man will always be smarter and more cunning. The cavalry will always win.”

The solution, Mr. Wente, Mr. Trudell and others said, lies in getting more stories written by and starring Native Americans. But Mr. Wente noted that while independent indigenous film has blossomed in the last two decades, mainstream depictions have yet to catch up. “You have to stop expecting for Hollywood to correct it, because there seems to be no ability or desire to correct it,” Mr. Wente said.

There have been calls to boycott Netflix but, writing for Indian Country Today Media Network, which first broke news of the walk off, the filmmaker Brian Young noted that the distributor also offered a number of films by or about Native Americans.

The furor around “The Ridiculous Six” may drive more people to see it. Then one of the questions that Mr. Trudell, echoing others, had about the film will be answered: “Who the hell laughs at this stuff?”

The 2015 Met Gala has only officially begun, but there's a clear leader in the race for best couple, no small feat at an event that threatens to sap Hollywood of every celebrity it has for the duration of an East Coast evening.

That would be Marc Jacobs and his surprise guest (who, by some miracle, remained under wraps until their red carpet debut), Cher.

“This has been a dream of mine for a very, very long time,” Mr. Jacobs said.

It is Cher's first appearance at the Met Gala since 1997, when she arrived on the arm of Donatella Versace.

– MATTHEW SCHNEIER

A 214-pound Queens housewife struggled with a lifelong addiction to food until she shed 72 pounds and became the public face of the worldwide weight-control empire Weight Watchers.

THE WRITERS ASHLEY AND JAQUAVIS COLEMAN know the value of a good curtain-raiser. The couple have co-authored dozens of novels, and they like to start them with a bang: a headlong action sequence, a blast of violence or sex that rocks readers back on their heels. But the Colemans concede they would be hard-pressed to dream up anything more gripping than their own real-life opening scene.

In the summer of 2001, JaQuavis Coleman was a 16-year-old foster child in Flint, Mich., the former auto-manufacturing mecca that had devolved, in the wake of General Motors’ plant closures, into one of the country’s most dangerous cities, with a decimated economy and a violent crime rate more than three times the national average. When JaQuavis was 8, social services had removed him from his mother’s home. He spent years bouncing between foster families. At 16, JaQuavis was also a businessman: a crack dealer with a network of street-corner peddlers in his employ.

One day that summer, JaQuavis met a fellow dealer in a parking lot on Flint’s west side. He was there to make a bulk sale of a quarter-brick, or “nine-piece” — a nine-ounce parcel of cocaine, with a street value of about $11,000. In the middle of the transaction, JaQuavis heard the telltale chirp of a walkie-talkie. His customer, he now realized, was an undercover policeman. JaQuavis jumped into his car and spun out onto the road, with two unmarked police cars in pursuit. He didn’t want to get into a high-speed chase, so he whipped his car into a church parking lot and made a run for it, darting into an alleyway behind a row of small houses, where he tossed the quarter-brick into some bushes. When JaQuavis reached the small residential street on the other side of the houses, he was greeted by the police, who handcuffed him and went to search behind the houses where, they told him, they were certain he had ditched the drugs. JaQuavis had been dealing since he was 12, had amassed more than $100,000 and had never been arrested. Now, he thought: It’s over.

But when the police looked in the bushes, they couldn’t find any cocaine. They interrogated JaQuavis, who denied having ever possessed or sold drugs. They combed the backyard alley some more. After an hour of fruitless efforts, the police were forced to unlock the handcuffs and release their suspect.

JaQuavis was baffled by the turn of events until the next day, when he received a phone call. The previous afternoon, a 15-year-old girl had been sitting in her home on the west side of Flint when she heard sirens. She looked out of the window of her bedroom, and watched a young man throw a package in the bushes behind her house. She recognized him. He was a high school classmate — a handsome, charismatic boy whom she had admired from afar. The girl crept outside and grabbed the bundle, which she hid in her basement. “I have something that belongs to you,” Ashley Snell told JaQuavis Coleman when she reached him by phone. “You wanna come over here and pick it up?”

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Three of the nearly 50 works of urban fiction published by the Colemans over the last decade, often featuring drug deals, violence, sex and a brash kind of feminism.Credit Marko Metzinger

In the Colemans’ first novel, “Dirty Money” (2005), they told a version of this story. The outline was the same: the drug deal gone bad, the dope chucked in the bushes, the fateful phone call. To the extent that the authors took poetic license, it was to tone down the meet-cute improbability of the true-life events. In “Dirty Money,” the girl, Anari, and the crack dealer, Maurice, circle each other warily for a year or so before coupling up. But the facts of Ashley and JaQuavis’s romance outstripped pulp fiction. They fell in love more or less at first sight, moved into their own apartment while still in high school and were married in 2008. “We were together from the day we met,” Ashley says. “I don’t think we’ve spent more than a week apart in total over the past 14 years.”

That partnership turned out to be creative and entrepreneurial as well as romantic. Over the past decade, the Colemans have published nearly 50 books, sometimes as solo writers, sometimes under pseudonyms, but usually as collaborators with a byline that has become a trusted brand: “Ashley & JaQuavis.” They are marquee stars of urban fiction, or street lit, a genre whose inner-city settings and lurid mix of crime, sex and sensationalism have earned it comparisons to gangsta rap. The emergence of street lit is one of the big stories in recent American publishing, a juggernaut that has generated huge sales by catering to a readership — young, black and, for the most part, female — that historically has been ill-served by the book business. But the genre is also widely maligned. Street lit is subject to a kind of triple snobbery: scorned by literati who look down on genre fiction generally, ignored by a white publishing establishment that remains largely indifferent to black books and disparaged by African-American intellectuals for poor writing, coarse values and trafficking in racial stereotypes.

But if a certain kind of cultural prestige is shut off to the Colemans, they have reaped other rewards. They’ve built a large and loyal fan base, which gobbles up the new Ashley & JaQuavis titles that arrive every few months. Many of those books are sold at street-corner stands and other off-the-grid venues in African-American neighborhoods, a literary gray market that doesn’t register a blip on best-seller tallies. Yet the Colemans’ most popular series now regularly crack the trade fiction best-seller lists of The New York Times and Publishers Weekly. For years, the pair had no literary agent; they sold hundreds of thousands of books without banking a penny in royalties. Still, they have earned millions of dollars, almost exclusively from cash-for-manuscript deals negotiated directly with independent publishing houses. In short, though little known outside of the world of urban fiction, the Colemans are one of America’s most successful literary couples, a distinction they’ve achieved, they insist, because of their work’s gritty authenticity and their devotion to a primal literary virtue: the power of the ripping yarn.

“When you read our books, you’re gonna realize: ‘Ashley & JaQuavis are storytellers,’ ” says Ashley. “Our tales will get your heart pounding.”

THE COLEMANS’ HOME BASE — the cottage from which they operate their cottage industry — is a spacious four-bedroom house in a genteel suburb about 35 miles north of downtown Detroit. The house is plush, but when I visited this past winter, it was sparsely appointed. The couple had just recently moved in, and had only had time to fully furnish the bedroom of their 4-year-old son, Quaye.

In conversation, Ashley and JaQuavis exude both modesty and bravado: gratitude for their good fortune and bootstrappers’ pride in having made their own luck. They talk a lot about their time in the trenches, the years they spent as a drug dealer and “ride-or-die girl” tandem. In Flint they learned to “grind hard.” Writing, they say, is merely a more elevated kind of grind.

“Instead of hitting the block like we used to, we hit the laptops,” says Ashley. “I know what every word is worth. So while I’m writing, I’m like: ‘Okay, there’s a hundred dollars. There’s a thousand dollars. There’s five thousand dollars.’ ”

They maintain a rigorous regimen. They each try to write 5,000 words per day, five days a week. The writers stagger their shifts: JaQuavis goes to bed at 7 p.m. and wakes up early, around 3 or 4 in the morning, to work while his wife and child sleep. Ashley writes during the day, often in libraries or at Starbucks.

They divide the labor in other ways. Chapters are divvied up more or less equally, with tasks assigned according to individual strengths. (JaQuavis typically handles character development. Ashley loves writing murder scenes.) The results are stitched together, with no editorial interference from one author in the other’s text. The real work, they contend, is the brainstorming. The Colemans spend weeks mapping out their plot-driven books — long conversations that turn into elaborate diagrams on dry-erase boards. “JaQuavis and I are so close, it makes the process real easy,” says Ashley. “Sometimes when I’m thinking of something, a plot point, he’ll say it out loud, and I’m like: ‘Wait — did I say that?’ ”

Their collaboration developed by accident, and on the fly. Both were bookish teenagers. Ashley read lots of Judy Blume and John Grisham; JaQuavis liked Shakespeare, Richard Wright and “Atlas Shrugged.” (Their first official date was at a Borders bookstore, where Ashley bought “The Coldest Winter Ever,” the Sister Souljah novel often credited with kick-starting the contemporary street-lit movement.) In 2003, Ashley, then 17, was forced to terminate an ectopic pregnancy. She was bedridden for three weeks, and to provide distraction and boost her spirits, JaQuavis challenged his girlfriend to a writing contest. “She just wasn’t talking. She was laying in bed. I said, ‘You know what? I bet you I could write a better book than you.’ My wife is real competitive. So I said, ‘Yo, all right, $500 bet.’ And I saw her eyes spark, like, ‘What?! You can’t write no better book than me!’ So I wrote about three chapters. She wrote about three chapters. Two days later, we switched.”

The result, hammered out in a few days, would become “Dirty Money.” Two years later, when Ashley and JaQuavis were students at Ferris State University in Western Michigan, they sold the manuscript to Urban Books, a street-lit imprint founded by the best-selling author Carl Weber. At the time, JaQuavis was still making his living selling drugs. When Ashley got the phone call informing her that their book had been bought, she assumed they’d hit it big, and flushed more than $10,000 worth of cocaine down the toilet. Their advance was a mere $4,000.

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The roots of street lit, found in the midcentury detective novels of Chester Himes and the ‘60s and ‘70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines.Credit Marko Metzinger

Those advances would soon increase, eventually reaching five and six figures. The Colemans built their career, JaQuavis says, in a manner that made sense to him as a veteran dope peddler: by flooding the street with product. From the start, they were prolific, churning out books at a rate of four or five a year. Their novels made their way into stores; the now-defunct chain Waldenbooks, which had stores in urban areas typically bypassed by booksellers, was a major engine of the street-lit market. But Ashley and JaQuavis took advantage of distribution channels established by pioneering urban fiction authors such as Teri Woods and Vickie Stringer, and a network of street-corner tables, magazine stands, corner shops and bodegas. Like rappers who establish their bona fides with gray-market mixtapes, street-lit authors use this system to circumnavigate industry gatekeepers, bringing their work straight to the genre’s core readership. But urban fiction has other aficionados, in less likely places. “Our books are so popular in the prison system,” JaQuavis says. “We’re banned in certain penitentiaries. Inmates fight over the books — there are incidents, you know? I have loved ones in jail, and they’re like: ‘Yo, your books can’t come in here. It’s against the rules.’ ”

The appeal of the Colemans’ work is not hard to fathom. The books are formulaic and taut; they deliver the expected goods efficiently and exuberantly. The titles telegraph the contents: “Diary of a Street Diva,” “Kiss Kiss, Bang Bang,” “Murderville.” The novels serve up a stream of explicit sex and violence in a slangy, tangy, profane voice. In Ashley & JaQuavis’s books people don’t get killed: they get “popped,” “laid out,” get their “cap twisted back.” The smut is constant, with emphasis on the earthy, sticky, olfactory particulars. Romance novel clichés — shuddering orgasms, heroic carnal feats, superlative sexual skill sets — are rendered in the Colemans’ punchy patois.

Subtlety, in other words, isn’t Ashley & JaQuavis’s forte. But their books do have a grainy specificity. In “The Cartel” (2008), the first novel in the Colemans’ best-selling saga of a Miami drug syndicate, they catch the sights and smells of a crack workshop in a housing project: the nostril-stinging scent of cocaine and baking soda bubbling on stovetops; the teams of women, stripped naked except for hospital masks so they can’t pilfer the merchandise, “cutting up the cooked coke on the round wood table.” The subject matter is dark, but the Colemans’ tone is not quite noir. Even in the grimmest scenes, the mood is high-spirited, with the writers palpably relishing the lewd and gory details: the bodies writhing in boudoirs and crumpling under volleys of bullets, the geysers of blood and other bodily fluids.

The luridness of street lit has made it a flashpoint, inciting controversy reminiscent of the hip-hop culture wars of the 1980s and ’90s. But the street-lit debate touches deeper historical roots, reviving decades-old arguments in black literary circles about the mandate to uplift the race and present wholesome images of African-Americans. In 1928, W. E. B. Du Bois slammed the “licentiousness” of “Home to Harlem,” Claude McKay’s rollicking novel of Harlem nightlife. McKay’s book, Du Bois wrote, “for the most part nauseates me, and after the dirtier parts of its filth I feel distinctly like taking a bath.” Similar sentiments have greeted 21st-century street lit. In a 2006 New York Times Op-Ed essay, the journalist and author Nick Chiles decried “the sexualization and degradation of black fiction.” African-American bookstores, Chiles complained, are “overrun with novels that . . . appeal exclusively to our most prurient natures — as if these nasty books were pairing off back in the stockrooms like little paperback rabbits and churning out even more graphic offspring that make Ralph Ellison books cringe into a dusty corner.”

Copulating paperbacks aside, it’s clear that the street-lit debate is about more than literature, touching on questions of paternalism versus populism, and on middle-class anxieties about the black underclass. “It’s part and parcel of black elites’ efforts to define not only a literary tradition, but a racial politics,” said Kinohi Nishikawa, an assistant professor of English and African-American Studies at Princeton University. “There has always been a sense that because African-Americans’ opportunities to represent themselves are so limited in the first place, any hint of criminality or salaciousness would necessarily be a knock on the entire racial politics. One of the pressing debates about African-American literature today is: If we can’t include writers like Ashley & JaQuavis, to what extent is the foundation of our thinking about black literature faulty? Is it just a literature for elites? Or can it be inclusive, bringing urban fiction under the purview of our umbrella term ‘African-American literature’?”

Defenders of street lit note that the genre has a pedigree: a tradition of black pulp fiction that stretches from Chester Himes, the midcentury author of hardboiled Harlem detective stories, to the 1960s and ’70s “ghetto fiction” of Iceberg Slim and Donald Goines, to the current wave of urban fiction authors. Others argue for street lit as a social good, noting that it attracts a large audience that might otherwise never read at all. Scholars like Nishikawa link street lit to recent studies showing increased reading among African-Americans. A 2014 Pew Research Center report found that a greater percentage of black Americans are book readers than whites or Latinos.

For their part, the Colemans place their work in the broader black literary tradition. “You have Maya Angelou, Alice Walker, James Baldwin — all of these traditional black writers, who wrote about the struggles of racism, injustice, inequality,” says Ashley. “We’re writing about the struggle as it happens now. It’s just a different struggle. I’m telling my story. I’m telling the struggle of a black girl from Flint, Michigan, who grew up on welfare.”

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The Colemans in their new four-bedroom house in the northern suburbs of Detroit.Credit Courtesy of Ashley and JaQuavis Coleman

Perhaps there is a high-minded case to be made for street lit. But the virtues of Ashley & JaQuavis’s work are more basic. Their novels do lack literary polish. The writing is not graceful; there are passages of clunky exposition and sex scenes that induce guffaws and eye rolls. But the pleasure quotient is high. The books flaunt a garish brand of feminism, with women characters cast not just as vixens, but also as gangsters — cold-blooded killers, “murder mamas.” The stories are exceptionally well-plotted. “The Cartel” opens by introducing its hero, the crime boss Carter Diamond; on page 9, a gunshot spatters Diamond’s brain across the interior of a police cruiser. The book then flashes back seven years and begins to hurtle forward again — a bullet train, whizzing readers through shifting alliances, romantic entanglements and betrayals, kidnappings, shootouts with Haitian and Dominican gangsters, and a cliffhanger closing scene that leaves the novel’s heroine tied to a chair in a basement, gruesomely tortured to the edge of death. Ashley & JaQuavis’s books are not Ralph Ellison, certainly, but they build up quite a head of steam. They move.

The Colemans are moving themselves these days. They recently signed a deal with St. Martin’s Press, which will bring out the next installment in the “Cartel” series as well as new solo series by both writers. The St. Martin’s deal is both lucrative and legitimizing — a validation of Ashley and JaQuavis’s work by one of publishing’s most venerable houses. The Colemans’ ambitions have grown, as well. A recent trilogy, “Murderville,” tackles human trafficking and the blood-diamond industry in West Africa, with storylines that sweep from Sierra Leone to Mexico to Los Angeles. Increasingly, Ashley & JaQuavis are leaning on research — traveling to far-flung settings and hitting the books in the libraries — and spending less time mining their own rough-and-tumble past.

But Flint remains a source of inspiration. One evening not long ago, JaQuavis led me on a tour of his hometown: a popular roadside bar; the parking lot where he met the undercover cop for the ill-fated drug deal; Ashley’s old house, the site of his almost-arrest. He took me to a ramshackle vehicle repair shop on Flint’s west side, where he worked as a kid, washing cars. He showed me a bathroom at the rear of the garage, where, at age 12, he sneaked away to inspect the first “boulder” of crack that he ever sold. A spray-painted sign on the garage wall, which JaQuavis remembered from his time at the car wash, offered words of warning:

WHAT EVERY YOUNG MAN SHOULD KNOW
ABOUT USING A GUN:
MURDER . . . 30 Years
ARMED ROBBERY . . . 15 Years
ASSAULT . . . 15 Years
RAPE . . . 20 Years
POSSESSION . . . 5 Years
JACKING . . . 20 YEARS

“We still love Flint, Michigan,” JaQuavis says. “It’s so seedy, so treacherous. But there’s some heart in this city. This is where it all started, selling books out the box. In the days when we would get those little $40,000 advances, they’d send us a couple boxes of books for free. We would hit the streets to sell our books, right out of the car trunk. It was a hustle. It still is.”

One old neighborhood asset that the Colemans have not shaken off is swagger. “My wife is the best female writer in the game,” JaQuavis told me. “I believe I’m the best male writer in the game. I’m sleeping next to the best writer in the world. And she’s doing the same.”

 

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